Coroners and Freedmen

In Eric Foner’s magisterial Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution the word coroner appears exactly zero times. The coroner’s office is not meaningfully mentioned in Leon Litwack’s Been in the Storm So Long, Steven Hahn’s A Nation Under Our Feet, David Blight’s Race and Reunion, Gregory Downs’s After Appomattox or virtually every other landmark study of the South in the aftermath of the Civil War. And yet on July 9, the day after the Hamburg Massacre, the town’s determined mayor, Prince Rivers, stood over the bodies of his slain citizens and convened a coroners’ inquest. He did so because that is what you do the day after a massacre; that is the first link in the chain of justice. When the inquest was over, Rivers bundled together the pages of testimony and issued arrest warrants for eighty-seven white men, including Mathew Butler, future South Carolina Senator, and Ben Tilman, future South Carolina governor. Notice of the inquest reverberated in newspapers throughout the north and was reprinted in The New York Times. The judicial process went no farther, however; the “straight-outs” were in ascendance, and Reconstruction was rolling back. To Rivers’ dismay, there were no more links in the chain of justice.

There is a reason the position of coroner was among the first African Americans held in Reconstruction and one of the last they relinquished. Yes, it was one of the lowest rungs on the ladder of elected service—but it was also the frontline in the battle for the sanctity of the African American body, against which so much Klan terror was directed. “To be black is to be naked before guns, fists, and knives,” Ta-Nehisi Coastes has written. “You must always remember that the sociology, the history, economics, the graphs, the charts, the regressions all land, with great violence, upon the body.”

While it is entirely too late for justice to be served the many African Americans who were terrorized during the state’s era of slavery and “redemption,” it is not too late to give a better accounting of those who gave their lives. This is no less than we do for the mass graves we find in Iraq or Mexico, and it is what scholars of social justice suggest is the first step toward reconciliation after any war: You count the dead because when every body matters, everybody matters.

CSI:D captures only a fraction of the violence that followed upon the unsuccessful prosecution of Reconstruction’s many assassins. But as with the cases of the enslaved who were murdered, the project is devoted to following up what traces do remain. Coupled with records from the Bureau and the army, we at least have somewhere to begin.

NEXT: The Dead Them and the Dying Us


“Murders and Outrages” in South Carolina, 1866-1868

Victim(s) Perpetrator(s) Crime Date Location Description
Ephraim McCallum (freedman) James McCall, Thomas Cottingham, Dr. Patterson, Thomas M. Kal, Thomas Welsh, and other white citizens murder December 2, 1866 Bennettsville, Marlsborough District, SC The civil authorities are reported as not having taken any action in the matter
Jerry Rimes (colored) Elbert Franklin (white) assault with a knife December 13, 1866 Edgefield District, SC Trial pending before the civil courts
Thomas Pyatt (colored) J.C. Dennis (white) and Durand R. Ellis (colored) assault and battery December 1, 1866 Georgetown, SC the defendants have been arrested by the civil authorities and bound over for their appearance at the District Court for trial on the 1st Monday in January 1867
William Wright (colored) William Larrimore, William Larrimore Jr., John Larrimore (all white) shooting with a gun December 11, 1866 Georgetown District, about 20 miles from Georgetown, SC a warrant issued by a magistrate is in the hands of the Sheriff of the District for the arrest of the Defendant
Mandy Glover (colored) William Sizemore, Rober Sizemore, Madison Ramsey, Jefferson Hearn, Manford Hearn, Norril Hearn, William Williamson (all white) assault and battery December 3, 1866 Barnwell District, SC this case was laid before the civil authorities without effect
Morris Jackson (freedman) Williamson cut in the face with knife December 15, 1866 Brantsville, SC Williamson was arrested by Bvt. Lt. Col. O. H. Moore, Capt. 6th U. S. Inftry
Mary Davis (freedwoman) Gabriel Bryan (white) shooting December 17, 1866 Georgetown, SC the defendant immediately upon committing the deed left the District but the Sheriff hearing he was in Williamsburg District sent the warrant there for his arrest, not been heard of since
J.W. Doan (white) Billy (freedman) assault and battery December 21, 1866 Georgetown, SC The defendant [has been] been bound over for their appearance at court on the 1st Monday in January 1867 for trial
Rinah May (freedman) E. C. Easterling (white) assault and battery December 24, 1866 Georgetown, SC The defendant [has been] been bound over for their appearance at court on the 1st Monday in January 1867 for trial
Paul McRae (f’man) F. W. McCasker (white) assault and battery December 24, 1866 Georgetown, SC The defendant [has been] been bound over for their appearance at court on the 1st Monday in January 1867 for trial
Sally Charles David Alison tying, beating 30 blows with a hickory with & driving from the neighborhood December 13, 1866 Rover Scott’s on the road from Greenville C.H. to Laruens, near the border line of Greenville & Laurens districts case just reported to this office. Referred Dec. 29th for investigation to Doct. Dunhlin Moore, Magistrate Greenville Dist. No report received
Harriet Frampton (colored) Andrew Browning, Malcomb Browning, Tom Browning (all white) [unknown] December 1866 Colleron District, SC Andrew, Malcomb and Tom Browning all bound over by Magistrate to appear at next court
Peter Marang (colored) Ely Faulk (white) assault with intent to kill and carrying concealed weapons Mount Holly, SC April 30, 1867 Ely Faulk and Peter Marang were quarreling at Mt. Holly about the theft of 2 barrels of Turpentine belonging to Faulk's employer, B. F. Barden, which had been ascertained to have been stolen by 2 white men, and Ely Faulk, pulling out a pistol, fired two shots at Marang, when Marang was running away from him. I required M. Browning, Magistrate, to proceed with this case according to law, forbidding any settlement short of a trial by the proper court. May 10, 1867 Mr. Browning reported to me that Ely Faulk had furnished bail in the sum of $500.00 for his appearance in court, and had been set at liberty until day of trial. Not believing the whole of Mr. Browning's report, I called for another and more detailed report, asking name of bailee, etc., whereupon Mr. Browning on the 29th inst. reported that he had understood that M. B. F. Barden, Faulk's employer was to become the bailee and that he had released Faulk, before the bail bond had been signed, that subsequently Faulk had run away and Barden now refused to sign the bond
Clara Anderson (colored) Calhoun Nichols (white) verbal quarrel May 25, 1867 Greenville, SC Calhoun Nichols, a mere boy, was, May 25.67, quarreling with Clara Anderson, a colored girl, because she would not call him "Mr. Nichols," he, however, calling her "Clara." Both were engaged in cleaning a church in Greenville. Clara Anderson persisted in calling him "Calhoun," whereupon he struck her. I had him arrested and bought before a Magistrate, but in consideration of his youth and the fact that he begged Clara Anderson's pardon, paid her ten dollars damages and the Magistrate's costs, I allowed the case to be dropped, warning him however that he had no right to call other people, not in his employ, by their Christian names and require them to address him as a Master
Reuben Thompson (colored) Leslie Slawson (white) threatening to kill June 22, 1867 [unclear] Reuben Thompson is employed by J. A. Shirer, father-in-law of Leslie Slawson. June 22.67 when Mr. Shirer was absent, Leslie Slawson gave orders to Reuben Thompson to go into the woods for certain timber. It was raining and Reuben, whose contract does not require him to work on rainy days, refused. Both quarreled. Slawson ran to his house, took a gun and pointed the same at Reuben. The gun was taken from him by members of his family, when he ran into the house and seized a pistol. Slawson was arrested and tried in Provost Court, held by me June 25,1867, and the following sentence was passed -- approved by Comr. officer, Post of Charleston -- that Leslie Slawson pay a fine of fifty dollars or be confined at hard labor for fifty days and confiscation of gun and pistol
Niziah Adams Mrs. B. Beayeum, R. Kay, John Kay, W. Prewet, E. Prewet, Joseph Ashley, Jessy Ashley, and Oliver Brampon assault and battery July 14, 1867 Anderson District, SC Accused were arrested & bought before the Post Committee charged with being concerned with this outrage. After an examination they were released
Polly Woodson Emery Conly (white) assault with intent to kill July 16, 1867 Anderson District, SC arrested by the civil authority and held to bail
Hickory Foster (colored) John W. Hamlin (white) assault and battery June 1867 Mount Holly, Charleston, SC in the latter part of June, Hickory Foster came from Charleston to Mount Holly in the cars. When he got out of the cars he laid on the ground a bundle and 2 plains (planes?). John W. Hamlin picked up one of the plains and threw it against the Rail Road Car. When remonstrated with by Foster, he used abusive language and kicked him with his foot
Taby Comell (colored) T. J. Harvey (white) assault and battery August 23, 1867 Simpson Plantation, SC Taby Comell works on T. J. Harvey's plantn. On or about Aug. 23rd both had a dispute and Harvey assaulted and struck Comell. Referred to Magistrate, René Davenel, Aug. 24, 1867
John Wesley (colored) P. M. C. Earnest (white, magistrate) false imprisonment August 1867 Wassamasaw Swamp, SC John Wesley had in the latter part of May a dispute with a white woman, Ann Fielder, sister of P. M. C. Earnest, in regard to who was to turn out, both meeting on a narrow road, Wesley driving a heavy timbercart and Ann Fielder a buggy. Wesley was arrested by Earnest, not allowed to bring his witnesses, was sent to Charleston jail and there confined for 2 ½ months, when he was released without trial
Thomas Turner (white) Wallace Williams (freedman) knife stab in back August 20, 1867 Greenville, SC in jail, awaiting trial [sentenced by District Court of Greenville to six months labor on the roads]
Terry Benson Taylor Clark flesh wound in arm from revolver August 15, 1867 Greenville District, SC report of action not received
Berry Blasingame Henry Stigall and Patrick Stigall beating and scratching August 25, 1867 Greenville District, SC referred to J. R. Gossett, magistrate. Offenders have taken refuge in the swamps
Miles M. N. Hunnicutt December Gadsen, Nat Frazier, John Keith, Jack Walker, Green Cleveland, Jr., Jackson Henderson (freedmen) murder October 12, 1867 Pendleton, Pickens District, SC The six freedmen named in column of offenders were tried by Superior court in Pickens Dist. & found guilty of murder & sentenced to be hung Dec. 6, 1867. Eighteen other freedmen were convicted of riot & sentenced to various terms, from eleven to fourteen months of penitentiary. See report of Refugees & Freedmen for particulars
Yancy Carter John Harrison knife wound in the right buttock, 2 inches wide and 2 1/2 inches deep, no dangerous March 5, 1868 Greenville Courthouse, Greenville, SC no arrest. Affair compromised, with cognizance of Mr. Wm. E. Earle, Magistrate. See Special Report of date 8th March
Andrew Walker Paddy McDavid, Newton McDavid, Andrew McDavid, and others severe beating April 12, 1868 Greenville District, SC warrant issued. No arrest. Offenders said to have fled
Allen Pickens and Samuel Duck Solomon Walls and David Baily beating. Pickens wounded in forehead with cock of pistol & Duck shot at April 21, 1868 Greenville District civil authorities failing, Mil. called in & walls arrested by Salter on the 28th for using pistol, just as he & Baily had been arrested by the civil authorities
Louis Hunter Jerry Hunt, Marion Miller, Andrew Cooper, William Algood, Ed Algood, George Thomas, Joshua Thomas, &c. while in custody of 1st party named (a constable) was laid across a barrel, whipped & pistol snapped against his head & breast &c. April 14, 1868 Pickens District, SC referred to civil authorities & Mil. called on to arrest at least those who had pistols
William Blye and Mary Blye Frank Hunt severely beaten on their own place wholly without cause April 18, 1868 Pickens District, SC referred to civil authorities & not as yet heard from
Samuel Thompson Henderson Jenkins shot in arm & bowels May 5, 1968 Greenville, SC warrant issued
James Thomas, Henry Thomas, Levi Thomas Benjamin Garrett, Irvine Garrett, William James, Edgar Cox and three others unknown James beaten, Henry’s house assaulted, Levi’s broken into, and all three threatened with hanging if they voted the Republican ticket May 25, 1868 Greenville District, SC warrant issued but not served
Rachel Foster, Randal Foster (her son, a minor) T. E. Bowie (acting constable), Samuel Mundy, John H. Mundy, George Lomax, and Andrew Stevenson under an unlawful warrant issued by James McCaslan J. P. by direction of Mr. Hartar, broke into her house and by force of arms took her son back to Mr. Stevenson who claimed to be his employer May 30, 1868 Abbeville District, SC released the boy from contract with Mr. Stevenson, unwittingly signed by him without the cognizance of his mother. Outrage referred to the civil authorities and not heard since heard from
Moses Scott, William Scott (his minor son), Pleasant Scott (his minor son) Jasckson Dooley turned him off, whipped his two sons without his consent June 23, 1868 Abbeville District, SC wrote to him about Father. Outrage referred to C. A. and not yet heard from
Richard Lee D. Dowden assaulted & turned him off June 10, 1868 Abbeville District wrote. Assault referred to C. A. & not heard from
Maria Palate Turner Ellis struck her and on her leaving withheld her effects June 10, 1868 Abbeville, SC ordered to give up things. Assault referred to C. A. and not yet heard from
Imson Logan Keith Ingraham threatening his life. Beat him & his wife and shot at him in 1866 & ran off. Just returned. June 11, 1868 Abbeville, SC referred to C. A. Warrant issued but not executed
Annie Rucker, Issac Rucker (son, aged 12) Thomas Kofer kidnapped and taken into Georgia April 1868 Abbeville, SC Lieut. request through Asst. Commis. To have case attended to
Nelson Joiner Ku Klux Klan house burnt June 6, 1868 Abbeville, SC parties unknown. No action possible
Caesar Speed David Miller drove off and struck him June 2, 1868 Abbeville, SC wrote. Assault referred to C. A., not heard from
William Howard B. L. Norris assaulted him with a pistol June 4, 1868 Abbeville, SC brought to the attention of C. A. & nothing done
Agnes Berry, Harriet Berry James Ritchie June 1, 1868 beat them Abbeville, SC referred to C. A. & not heard from
Benjamin Baskin James Reese shot at him June 6, 1868 Abbeville District, SC referred to C. A. and not yet heard from
Andrew Dunn I. J. Razor turned him off and struck him June 20, 1868 Abbeville, SC settlement pending. Referred otherwise to C. A. & not heard from
M. A. Dunwood Joe Wilson bear her June 25, 1868 Abbeville, SC referred to civil authorities & not heard from
Mary Williams Thomas Arnold bear her with a hoe July 3, 1868 Abbeville District, SC warrant issued by J. P. but not yet executed
Caroline Carr James Belcher beat & kicked her June 30, 1868 Abbeville District, SC referred to Squire Giles & not yet heard from
Charles Moore & wife Mrs. Burnett & her son Mrs. B. struck the wife & the son assaulted both with pistol June 30, 1868 Abbeville District, SC Squire Merriweather forced to issue warrant against son; not yet executed
Lizzie Blackwell Alfred Blackwell choked and otherwise abused her July 22, 1868 Abbeville District, SC referred to Squire Giles & not yet heard from
Junior McIntosh C. L. Cason beat him severely & sent him to jail on charge of attempt at rape on sister July 19, 1868 Abbeville District, SC Warrant issued against Cason by Squire McCord on failure of Squire Sharp because Plaintiff had no land & could not give white security to prosecute
Anderson Johnson Samuel Carter struck & drove him off July 24, 1868 Abbeville District warrant issued by Squire McCord but not executed
Peter Harrison John Dawkins beat him July 4, 1868 Abbeville District warrant issued by Squire McCord but not executed
Elsie Richie John Godman beat her severely July 20, 1868 Abbeville District warrant issued by Squire McCord but not executed
Winnie Anderson Albert Hamlin took her son off into Alabama January 1868 Abbeville District reported on July 8th
Wade Hampton? Pinceton Howard? Beat & abused her July 15, 1868 Abbeville District, SC referred to Squire Tarrant & not yet heard from
Foley Huckerby George Marvin beat her July 15, 1868 Abbeville District, SC returned to Squire Giles who had refused to act
Charlotte Lines, Amanda Lines (her daughter) William McDaniel beat them both July 17, 1868 Abbeville District, SC referred to Squire Maddison & not yet heard from
Charles Plumber John Ridge beat him about 1/2 hour July 12, 1868 Abbeville District, SC referred to Squire Jas. McCaslan & not heard from
Maria Mickerson John Ramsey beat and drove her off July 20, 1868 Abbeville District referred to Squire Chifley & not heard from
Joe Smith Louis Russell locked him in store & beat hi badly July 25, 1868 Abbeville District, SC [none]
Levi James Wright beat his son, 10 years old July 17, 1868 Abbeville District, SC referred to Squire Giles and not yet heard from
Nelson Freman Samuel Cage & others unknown took him out his bed at night & whipped him because he was a Republican [illegible] Abbeville County, SC advised him to try & discover the others before taking any action
George Alexander Nat Haynes assaulted him for being a Republican July 13, 1868 Abbeville County, SC Dropped by Plaintiff
Josh Wardlaw William Hammond, P. Blackwell, Coon & others took him out his bed at night, stripped, whipped & on his running off, shot 3 times at him because he was a Republican May 17, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to Squire McCord, who says Plaintiff could not swear to the parties, although he declared to me he could
George Williams Benjamin Hunter beat & threatened to kill him August 22, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to Squire Sharp and not heard from
Seabrow Alston John Ivie, Little & one other unknown claiming to be the K. K. K. called him out of his house at night & shot at him. August 1, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to Squire J. McCaslan & not heard from
Tom Clinkscales Samuel Knox beat him August 1868 Abbeville Courthouse, Abbeville, SC complained to Squire McCord who while promising did nothing
Jane Lines John Lines assault & battery August 8, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to Squire McCaslan & not heard from
Ibbey Maddox Kirpatric threw her & things out house she occupied for year on contract August 1868 Abbeville County, SC warrant wrung from Squire McCord for a trespass, but not & probably never will be served
Andy Hall “Rep.” Morrow beat him on charge of stealing a Turkey July 29, 1868 Abbeville County reported compromised by plaintiff for $10.00
Fannie Parker James Moore assault & battery August 8, 1868 Abbeville Courthouse, Abbeville, SC referred to Squire McCord by whom suppressed
Sallie Moore Caroline Mays assaultt & battery August 17, 1868 Abbeville Courthouse, Abbeville, SC Plaintiff placed under recognizance by Squire McCord, but warrant not served on Defendant
George Webb George Miller in his absence tore down the house occupied under contract for the year August 22, 1868 Abbeville County referred to Squire Sharp & not heard from
Hannah Ritchie John Robert having taken her son John, 13 years old, out to Mississippi, on returning in early part of '68 said he had left him in Big Swamp. Fall 1866 Abbeville County, SC having moved into Anderson, told her to find out where and if possible, also in what Co. in Miss. her son was left & let me know
Alfred Elliss Lee Russell (“Town Marshall”) shot at, with an expressed intent to kill him, without any justification August 25, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to Squire McCord, where it is presumed it will rest----Later: the "difficulty" made up, before McC
Henry Shird Davis Stacy shot him in right shoulder where the ball still rests with intent to kill August 22, 1868 Abbeville County, SC warrant issued by Squire Sharp, but not executed
Chey Maddison James Taylor beat her July 29, 1868 Abbeville County, SC applied to Squire Maddison who did nothing. Warrant issued by Squire McCord, but not served
Wylie James Davis Stacy shot him dead, at night, in door of house of his son-in-law for whom he was mistaken August 28, 1868 near Cokesburg on Squire Sharp refusing to issue warrant on circumstantial proof, issued at C. H., but Stacy reported to have left warrant with Sheriff
Joe Halsenback J. Crackonhorn, Bill, Josh, and Howard broke in his door at night, and assaulting, cut his head, when he drove them off with an axed, cutting Howard August 27, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to Squire J. McCaslan on the 31st
Henry Moore, Nelson Martin, Moses Martin, Josh Wardlaw Blackwell, William Harman & 10 others unknown broke into their houses at night, smashed their guns, stripped, whipped & shot at them &c. because they were Radicals. April 19, 1868 Abbeville County, SC Case of Wardlaw ref'd to Squire McCord some time ago & nothing done. Others sent to Squire J. McCaslan who has not as yet done anything. Offenders said to live in Edgefield
George W. Hunter, James Martin George Brown, Joe Brown assault & battery September 3, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to Squire McCord
Daniel Jones Willis Craft, John Morgan broke into his house at night & Craft shot him in bed in the arm September 8, 1868 Abbeville County, SC no complaint. Reported only
Mary Arnold & son Henry Cobb beat them both September 23, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to Squire Tarrant & not heard from
Nancy Scott Jack Dooley beat & threw her outdoors September 2, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to Squire McCord
Lavinia White Robin Gilmore beat her & she being with child tried to strike her on the abdomen with a hoe September 16, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to Squire J. McCaslan and not hear from
Isaac Black or Brown Isaac Lee Stephen McKee shot at night at corn crib in shoulder & bowels supposed to be by McKee. Died 18th September 10, 1868 [not listed] no action taken
Amelia Roberts Quitman Marshall, Foster Marshall beaten, kicked &c. by first, & threatened with pistol by the other September 21, 1868 Abbeville County, SC warrant against first exhorted from Squire McC
Adam Gordon Lee Russell (“Town Marshall”) assault & battery September 7, 1868 Abbeville Courthouse, Abbeville, SC no warrant issued by Squire McCord to whom referred
Edie Mansarinse Edward Swenagan beat her August 14, 1868 Abbeville County referred to Squire McCord
Jeff Buchanan William Talbert shot him dead in field September 4, 1868 Abbeville County, SC no complaint from relatives & no action taken that is known of
Mans Calhoun John Thompson, Thomas Quarles locked him in store and gave him over 100 lashes September 9, 1868 Abbeville Courthouse, Abbeville, SC no complaint
Ben Wraith and several others 12 unknown attacked and drove all the inmates out of 5 houses firth several shots — at night — saying they were after Radicals September 10, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to Squire Tarrant
Andrew Wilson Unknown shot at night in hand & back September 1868 Abbeville County, SC no action. No complaint reported
Jacob Halloway Dr. William Wright, George Wright assault & battery with knife & pistol with threats to kill September 15, 1868 Abbeville County, SC referred to nearest Magistrate
name not known Boozer, Tom Arnold, Gus Aiken, Bill Monday broke into his house at night & violently destroyed Republican Tickets which he had for distribution next day November 2, 1868 near Cokesburg case in the hands of the Dept. State Constable
Frank Talbert K.K.K. was stopped on the road at night & made to swear that he would vote the Democratic ticket October 28, 1868 neighborhood of “Childs Box” reported to Dep. State Constable for the county
Frank Talbert, Henry Cake, Spencer Cothran K.K.K. came to their houses after them at night & as they were lying out took off a pistol of 2nd party named November 5, 1868 neighborhood of “Childs Box” reported to Dep. State Constable for the county
Mason Parker K.K.K. came to his house at night and searched for him to kill him. Has been lying in woods for month & has had to leave place November 22, 1868 Long Cane, SC reported to Dep. State Constable for the county
innumerable K.K.K. have been lying out in the woods since some time before the election to save being murdered in their beds, their houses having in the mean time been frequently visited at night for that purpose [blank] Long Cane, SC; Gold Mine, SC & outer regions reported to Dep. State Constable for the county
Anthony Marshall, Washington Green, Dick Brady, Wade Hamilton, Jackson Griffin, Reuben Watson, Allen Goode Dr. Moses Taggart, Joe Cannaday, John Butler, George Hughes, Harvey Ragan, Jim Briscoe, Collison & many others names unknown nthony Marshall killed, Green, Brady, Hamilton, Griffin & Watson wounded, Goode beaten, at a riot instigated by Taggart & participated in by the others, whereby the Freedmen were prevented from voting on that place November 3, 1868 White Hall, SC reported to Dep. State. Constable for the County. Reported also to Hd. Qts. with the exception of the names of Griffin & Watson, not previously reported
name not known unknown wounded by pistol shot at a a general shooting by a party who thereby kept the Freedmen from voting November 3, 1868 Calhoun’s Mill

reported to Dep. St. Constable

Jake Jones unknown two or more killed in his house at night while attention to make his escape from his assailants, was upward of 75 years old November 3, 1868 near Moseley’s reported to Dept. St. Constable & to Hd. Qts
innumerable various parties were prevented from voting by violence & threats of violence -- it being in most instances publicly declared that death would be visited on any one who attempted to vote the Republican ticket October & November, 1868 [blank] the names of all parties as far as known handed in to the Dep. St. Constable

Credit: Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1870, National Archives Microfilm Publication M869 Roll 34, “Reports of Murders and Outrages”

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